Special Presentation – Discovery of An Extremely Rare Yuan Dynasty Blue & White Porcelain Ware【中英文版】

元青花山水瓷碗 | Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Ware


1. Uncover the Mysteries of an Extremely Rare Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Ware with Landscape Paintings
2. The Legendary “Pine Trees and Rocks” Paintings – Chinese Art History from Tang to Yuan Dynasty
3. Poetic, Symbolic and Nostalgic – Distinctive Styles of Yuan Literati Paintings
4. The Fisherman’s Wisdom
5. Yuan Zhu Wen – A Polished Yuan Dynasty Seal

元青花山水瓷碗 | Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Ware, Inside Image

1. Uncover the Mysteries of an Extremely Rare Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Ware with Landscape Paintings

This stunning blue and white porcelain bowl has many distinctive attributes of Yuan dynasty porcelain ware. The striking underglaze paintings in cobalt closely resemble free style Chinese ink paintings on Xuan rice paper.

The history of blue and white ceramics could be traced back to the Tang and Song dynasty, however they were mostly overglaze wares.

釉上彩青花罐 宋仁宗 | Blue and White Overglaze Jar, Northern Song Dynasty

The cobalt blue pigment imported from western Asia was successfully applied as underglazes on white porcelain surface in Jingdezhen during the Yuan dynasty for the first time in ceramic history. It was a sensational phenomenon and a major breakthrough in world history of ceramic innovation and technology.

The intense blue-violet color contrasted beautifully with the snow white porcelain background, the cobalt blue outlines appeared submerged beneath the surface of the porcelain after high temperature firing. This effect would be the most important telltale sign of the Yuan dynasty blue and white porcelain ware, as the highly valuable cobalt blue pigment quickly ran out of supply in early Ming dynasty.

Thin transparent glaze, a network of fine lines within the glazed surface, light brown colored spots, are all characteristics of Yuan blue and white porcelain ware. Tiny rock pieces in the clay body could be seen twinkling under direct light, this is also a unique trait belonging to Yuan blue and white ware.

There is a band of Chrysanthemum pattern on the inside of the bowl. Chrysanthemum was a favorite decorative motif in Yuan dynasty, on a par with or even surpassing the popularity of lotus and peony. The typical chrysanthemum motif of Yuan dynasty blue and white porcelain ware featured a flat circular flower design, with single layer petals unfilled with color, and a lattice patterned center.

Praised by the Chinese literati as one of the four noble plants, Chrysanthemum has long been a symbolic flower in Chinese history, representing many virtues in a well learned gentleman – tenacity, courage, humility, honesty and integrity. The Yuan dynasty literati class particularly identified themselves with this symbolic flower, due to the impact of the sudden change of society. Many members of the Yuan literati class chose the path of returning to nature, hidden from the hustle and bustle of the outside world, evoking the scenes from the famous poem written by TAO Yuanming (365 – 427 AD), the picture perfect pastoral scene prominently placed picking the simple and pure flower – Chrysanthemum as a symbol of man and nature happily lived in one.

The influence of Yuan blue and white ware could also be found in the neighboring country of Japan, where it was known as sometsuke, mimicking the forms and decorations of Yuan ware.

Ming and Qing dynasties continued to make the popular blue and white ware, but people seemed to have all but forgotten the dynamic past of the Yuan dynasty blue and white ware until the 1950s, when authentic Yuan dynasty cobalt blue and white ware was first discovered and recognized worldwide. The reproduction or copying of Yuan ware only started to appear in the 1980s, therefore If you owned a Yuan dynasty blue and white ware before the 1980s you would have a great chance of owning an authentic piece.

This extremely rare blue and white porcelain bowl was collected in the early 20th century, had never been shown to the public since. It had a so-called chicken feet mark inside the foot ring, which could only seen on an ‘old kiln’ ware.

The importance of the discovery of this rare piece would be hard to emphasize, in that it would be the first known piece of Yuan dynasty blue and white porcelain ware with underglaze landscape paintings in cobalt, providing a cornerstone piece for the research of Yuan literati paintings and Yuan dynasty ceramic art history. A significant advantage of paintings on porcelain surface is its timeless quality, comparing to silk and paper mediums.

The legacy of Yuan blue and white porcelain has been carried on by the widespread popularity of Ming and Qing ware. Let’s remember the glorious past of the Yuan blue and white porcelain today with a comprehensive analysis of two master paintings on the inside and outside of this bowl.

2. The Legendary “Pine Trees and Rocks” Paintings – Chinese Art History from Tang to Yuan Dynasty

The blue and white landscape painting on the inside of the bowl is breathtakingly beautiful and graceful. The brushstrokes are strong, effortless, powerful and unconstrained, exuding great spirit and energy. Much like freestyle ink painting on Xuan rice paper, underglaze painting in cobalt has to be done in a very fluid and swift manner, a true test for a master artisan. The eye-catching blue and white contrast gives the picture more visual impact and a unifying effect.

The picture perfect scene of mountains and lake very likely referred to the renowned lake Taihu area. A large portion of the space in between the mountains was left unpainted, creating an endlessly open space, far and away, indicating it being the mirror like surface of the great lake Taihu. This was called “form without a form”, “image without an image” by Lao Tzu in his Taoist classic “Tao Te Ching”.

The focal point of the painting is undoubtedly the awe inspiring pair of pine trees, standing tall on the rocks, reaching to the sky and heavens above.

The pine trees were painted larger than life, out of proportion for a meaningful purpose. “Pine Trees and Rocks” was a key theme which frequently appeared in Yuan dynasty literati paintings.

The treasured tradition of painting the magnificent evergreen trees could be traced as far back as the Tang dynasty.

The Tang dynasty painter ZHANG Zao was a legend in this genre. His free style ink paintings of pine trees and rocks were vividly recorded and described in several Tang dynasty books of masterpiece paintings.

ZHANG Zao would “perform” his extraordinary brush skills in front of a live audience, painting vigorously in lightning speed with both hands at the same time, leaving the audience tongue-tied and awestruck. “It was not painting, it was Tao.” murmured the viewing audience.

Strong and resilient, evergreen and long lasting, reaching the heavens with open arms, the pine tree has been a legendary cultural symbol in China since ancient times, especially among the literati class.

In the book “Famous Paintngs of the Five Dynasties”, it was revealed that Monk Dayu wrote an interesting verse asking for a painting from the master painter JING Hao, specifically of pine trees and rocks. Undaunted by the special request, JING Hao wrote back promising a spirited painting fit for a ZEN monastery.

ZHANG Zao’s painting style enjoyed a renaissance during the Yuan dynasty.

《寒林平野图》五代宋初李成 | LI Cheng, Five Dynasties, Winter Woods

ZHAO Meng-fu, the 11th generation grandson of Emperor Taizu of the Song dynasty, played a pivotal role in the movement of the revival of this ancient art, particularly alluding to Tang, Five dynasties and the Northern Song dynasty. He avidly advocated for the expressive painting style, inspired by poetry, literature and calligraphy.

ZHAO Meng-fu’s painting “A Pair of Pine Trees” could be viewed today in museum collections.

元 赵孟頫 《双松平远图卷》| ZHAO Meng-Fu, A Pair of Pine Trees

WU Zhen, one of the four famous Yuan literati painters, was also a faithful follower of ZHAO’s renaissance movement. One of his favorite painting subject was the pine tree. His free style painting of “A Pair of Trees” awakened a time long gone, evoked a sense of nostalgia for traditional values.

The pines trees in WU’s masterful hands took on the spirit of the dragon, and looked dignified, robust and compelling. WU Zhen liked to paint with brush soaked with ink, in smooth and effortless movement with unbridled passion, his works showed great brush control skills and ink tonal contrast.

In classic text of Chinese literature and philosophy, the characters of the pine tree were held with the highest regard. Confucius and Taoist Master Chuang Tzu both spoke highly of pine tree’s qualities of righteousness and perseverance in the face of adversity. The great Tang dynasty poet LI Bai also motivated others to learn from the pine tree and be a man of integrity.

王蒙 溪山风雨图册 故宫博物院藏 | WANG Meng, Mountain Stream in Rain, Palace Museum

The Yuan dynasty literati class found themselves in a very cold and hostile environment under the Mongols rule, the pine tree hence became a pertinent symbol of an ideal gentleman’s uprightness and worthiness.

3. Poetic, Symbolic and Nostalgic – Distinctive Styles of Yuan Literati Paintings

Inside the bowl, situated to the right of the pine trees are lofty mountain peaks, the dramatic circular shape of the mountain ranges surrounding the lake bore the resemblance of a soaring dragon. The picture brings to mind Yuan literati painter WANG Meng’s famous work “Green Bian Mountain Hideaway” and Northern Song master landscape painter GUO Xi’s “Early Spring”.

郭熙《早春图》| Early Spring, by GUO Xi (1020 – 1090)

Professor John Sallis, Frederick J. Adelmann Chair in Philosophy at Boston College, analyzed GUO Xi’s “Early Spring” with vivid descriptions in his book “Senses of Landscape”:

“The dynamic tension is displayed in the way the mountain is presented. The two huge boulders at its base, especially the upper one, which forms part of the mountain itself, look as though they are twisting, turning, changing shape; that is, their appearance is one of virtual movement, of inner dynamism. …the figure formed is that of an elongated S; not only does the mountain assume the shape of a dragon (symbolizing, in turn, the emperor), but also, since this figure is infused with dynamic tension, the mountain has the appearance of virtually rotating.”

The Bian Mountain is located in WANG Meng’s hometown, Huzhou, Ming Dynasty Chinese painter, scholar, calligrapher and art theorist DONG Qichang applauded it as “No.1 Mountain in the World”.

Within the blue & white landscape painting inside the bowl, on the path at the shore are two men making their way toward the thatched house hidden in the pine forests. An elderly man walks in front with a cane, followed by an assistant carrying a Guzheng (musical instrument).

This scene is also known as “Traveling with Guzheng to Visit A Friend”.  Yuan literati painting style showed clearly in this scene, only a few brush strokes were applied to sketch out the silhouette, posture and movement of the human figures. This scene also recalls the Chinese literary classic of “High Mountain and Flowing Water”, the story about a master music composer who only became the master of his craft after being inspired by the majestic mountains he visited. The underlying theme is the return to nature for inspiration and personal enlightenment.

赵孟頫《洞庭东山图》,北京故宫博物院藏 | ZHAO Meng-Fu, Lake and Mountains, Palace Museum

ZHAO Meng-fu, also known as the Pine & Snow Taoist, was a key figure and founder of the Yuan dynasty literati painting. “Mountains with mist and clouds are my teachers and inspirations”, the Pine & Snow Taoist urged his students to learn to paint by observing the subtleties of nature.

春山瑞松圖 宋·米芾 台北故宮博物院藏 | MI Fu, Northern Song Dynasty, Spring Mountains & Pine Trees

Yuan literati artists studied and mingled the techniques of both Northern and Southern style Chinese landscape masters – especially DONG Yuan, JU Ran, LI Cheng and GUO Xi, aiming at a revival of the great classic Chinese painting traditions.

The Yuan literati artists were well learned intellectuals and sophisticate scholars, they breathed feelings into their art, their landscape paintings were imbued with culture and style, poetry and calligraphy, it was an attempt to make man and nature united in one.

元 倪瓒 松亭山色图 | NI Zan, Yuan Dynasty, Pine Pavilion with Mountain View

Their efforts resulted in a brilliant school of art during the Yuan dynasty – promoting natural, unpretentious, simplistic, poetic, impromptu and genuine stylistic characters.

The Yuan dynasty literati artists lived or sojourned mostly in Huzhou and lake Taihu area on the south side of the Yangtze river, including ZHAO Meng-fu, his grandson WANG Meng, WU Zhen, NI Zan among others. Therefore their paintings had the same thread and common interests – the permanent subject being the beautiful lake Taihu and the verdant green mountains surrounding the famous lake.

王蒙 青卞隐居图 | WANG Meng, Green Bian Mountain Hideaway

4. The Fisherman’s Wisdom

On the outside of the bowl, there is a remarkable fisherman themed painting in cobalt. A man with a rain hat sat in his small fishing boat on a vast lake at the foot of the mountains, with the paddle in one hand while holding the fishing rod in the other hand, his eyes fixated on the water. It looks as though a scene was taken from Yuan dynasty literati painter WU Zhen’s various paintings on the fisherman subject.

元青花山水瓷碗 | Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Ware
“The fisherman lived a secluded life, took delight in fishing”
– WANG Yi, Han dynasty writer, provincial governor

The fisherman is a symbolic Taoist image, which could trace back to “Chu Ci”, an anthology of the State of Chu, written during the Warring States period of ancient China. The interchange between the fisherman and QU Yuan, a prominent patriotic Chu poet and minister, was considered a legendary tale of the Taoist philosophy.

QU Yuan declared his dismissal by the court was because “all the world is muddy and I alone am clear, and all men are drunk and I alone am sober.”

The fisherman differed from QU Yuan’s assertion, singing – “When the Cang-lang’s waters are clear, I can wash my hat-strings in them; When the Cang-lang’s waters are muddy, I can wash my feet in them.” (David Hawkes’ English version)

The fisherman’s words were in accordance with the essence of Taoist philosophy -“The sage was never still and stagnant, he was able to flow with the moments.”

The great Tang dynasty poet ZHANG Zhi-he called himself the “Mist and Waves Fisherman”. He wrote a most famous poem on a solo fishing trip near Xisai mountain of Huzhou.

The Fisherman
by ZHANG Zhi-he
translated by Ayling & MacKintosh

In front of Xisaishan the herons fly in white,
Where peach trees blossom and water flows and mandarin fish grow fat.
With his rain-hat bamboo-green,
And his cape the green of grass,
What need to turn about though wind and drizzle across?

The fisherman’s idealistic life had great appeals to the Yuan dynasty literati artists, owing largely to the abrupt disruption of society and social order. The worsening situation for the Yuan literati class prompted the artists to abandon the harsh reality and embrace the painless nature, the lone fisherman’s image hence appeared time and time again in Yuan literati paintings and screenplays.

赵孟頫《江村渔乐图》,美国克利夫兰艺术博物馆藏 | ZHAO Meng-Fu, Happy Fishermen of the River Village, Cleveland Museum of Art

“YAN Ziling fishing in Qilitan” or “YAN Ziling Diaoyutai” is a famous Yuan dynasty screen play written by GONG Tian-ting. The plot took place in the Han dynasty – the protagonist YAN Ziling saved the life of Han emperor Guangwu in a crisis. The emperor later invited Yan to join him in his court, Yan declined, still chose to live a free and happy fisherman’s life in Qilitan, and enjoy the breathtaking views of Fuchun mountains.

WU Zhen, a famous literati painter of Yuan dynasty, also called himself the “Plum Taoist”. Wu’s favorite subject was the fisherman. His fisherman themed paintings displayed exceptional brush skills, humorous poetry and calligraphy on each painting. They were thought provoking and delightful to view in all aesthetic senses.

5. Yuan Zhu Wen – A Polished Yuan Dynasty Seal

The inscription on the bottom of the bowl contains one Chinese character ‘Qing’ in underglaze blue within a blue square frame. The character ‘Qing’ could imply either blue or green color in Chinese. It could refer to the spectacular cobalt blue color it adopted, or the green colors of the pine trees, the mountains and the lake, all key elements in the paintings on the inside and outside of the bowl.

The seal script resembled Yuan Zhu Wen, which was created by ZHAO Meng-fu. He would write the characters for a new seal with the seal script and let the engraver complete the seal making work. ZHAO Meng-fu’s style is sleek and smooth, well balanced. The characters written with the Yuan Zhu Wen seal script have the signature rounded edges. Single characters are often square shaped.

ZHAO Meng-fu was the foremost calligrapher in Yuan dynasty. The multitalented literati artist and poet was also the 11th generation grandson of the founding emperor of the Song dynasty.

Kublai Khan was so impressed by his talents, he promoted ZHAO to be a top ranking official in the Yuan dynasty court.

ZHAO Meng-fu was also well versed in Taoism and Zen Buddhism. The Zen master Zhong Feng Ming Ben was very close with the ZHAO family while residing in Huzhou.

ZHAO Meng-fu and his artist son ZHAO Yong both had written in calligraphy Ming Ben’s Zen style poetry “The Verdant Mountains” and “The White Clouds”, both still available for viewing today.

赵孟頫行书《青山吟》| ZHAO Meng-Fu, Calligraphy, Green Mountain Poem

Ming Ben celebrated the mountain’s luscious greens and its eternity with Zen philosophy. The green mountain mentioned in the poem should refer to the same mountain in the painting “The Green Bian Mountain Hideaway”, painted by ZHAO’s grandson WANG Meng.

WANG Meng once expressed his fondness for the Bian mountain in a poem – “I would never forget the green mountain whilst in the clouds”.

Speaking of symbolism, ZHAO Meng-fu was also a master in getting a message across without being too obvious.

On ZHAO Meng-fu’s famous painting “Gentleman on Horseback”, which some commentators said was his self-portrait, ZHAO Meng-fu wrote a comment – “Painting is demanding, reading it is even more challenging. Takes a discerning eye to get a clue”.

赵孟頫《人骑图》| ZHAO Meng-Fu, Gentleman on Horseback

About 500 years later, Emperor Qian Long of the Qing dynasty also wrote on the same painting with an answer to ZHAO Meng-fu’s concern – “The Gentleman on Horseback painting is indeed hard to read, but I got it”

This Yuan blue and white bowl contains vast spans of mountains and water, rich history and culture, can you read it my friend?

「特别推介」元气淋漓幛犹湿 – 一件非同寻常的元青花山水瓷

Click Here For English Version

一、青翠浓艳青花瓷 – 考证元青花山水瓷碗的主要特征
二、气傲烟霞,势凌风雨 – 论松石图从唐代至元的形成和发展
三、元气淋漓幛犹湿 – 论元代文人画
四、青箬笠,绿蓑衣,斜风细雨不须归 – 谈渔父的人生智慧
五、元朱文,圆朱文 – 高雅的元代篆刻印

元青花山水瓷碗 | Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Ware

一、青翠浓艳青花瓷 – 考证元青花山水瓷碗的主要特征




釉上彩青花罐 宋仁宗 | Blue and White Overglaze Jar, Northern Song Dynasty


头青戴采照子,景德镇落马桥窑址 | Two Cobalt Glaze Test Pieces, Jingdezhen Luomaqiao Kiln Site

元代青花瓷纹饰出现大量时代特征明显的菊花纹。古代瓷器常见的花卉纹主要有牡丹,莲花和菊花。陶瓷上的菊花纹最早出现在汉代,宋代时 “花卉纹以莲花、牡丹多见,菊花次之。” 以牡丹、莲花纹为主,菊花纹比例很小的局面到了元代得到了彻底改变,菊花纹在景德镇和磁州窑等地大量兴起,甚至有超过牡丹莲花纹之势。

落马桥窑址元青花 | Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Ware, Jingdezhen, Luomaqiao Kiln Site









二、气傲烟霞,势凌风雨 – 论松石图从唐代至元的形成和发展



“松石图” 或 “双松平远图” 占据画面核心位置,画法构图迥异于明清,深得唐人古意。张彦远在《历代名画记》中说“树石之状,妙于韦鶠,穷于张通。〈张璪也〉”。朱景玄在《唐朝名画录》中称张璪 “惟松树特出古今,能用笔法。尝以手握双管,一时齐下”。赞美张璪的松石山水画 “气傲烟霞,势凌风雨,槎枿之形,鳞皴之状,随意纵横,应手间出。其山水之状,则高低秀丽,咫尺重深,石尖欲落,泉喷如吼。其近也,若逼人而寒;其远也,若极天之尽。”

唐代文学家符载感叹道:“观夫张公之艺,非画也,真道也。” 符载用形象的语言描绘了一代名师张璪绘制 “松石图” 的情形:“若流电激空,惊飙戾天,摧挫斡掣,撝霍瞥列,毫飞墨喷,捽掌如裂,离合惝恍,忽生怪状。及其终也,则松鳞皴,石巉岩,水湛湛,云窈眇。” 张璪 “松石图” 的艺术魅力达到了 “至人凝视,心境双寂” 的禅意境界。








《寒林平野图》五代宋初李成 | LI Cheng, Five Dynasties, Winter Woods



元 赵孟頫 《双松平远图卷》| ZHAO Meng-Fu, A Pair of Pine Trees in Solitude

元四家之一的吴镇尤喜画松,他的代表作有《双松平远图》。画面苍松挺立,势若虬龙,参天耸立,笔法遒劲,极具艺术感染力。吴镇的风格直追唐宋,尊循赵孟頫倡导的 “古意”,并善用湿墨渲染,潇洒娴熟,彰显笔墨分量。作品浓淡分明,层次空间感强,深得古意,将《松石图》的传统完好的继承和发展下来。《桐阴论画》称吴镇的画 “墨汁淋漓,古厚之气,扑人眉宇”。







王蒙 溪山风雨图册 故宫博物院藏 | WANG Meng, Mountain Stream in Rain, Palace Museum


三、元气淋漓幛犹湿 – 论元代文人画

此碗内壁青花山水图右侧山势陡峭,奇峰突起,环湖山脉以龙脉式取势布景,如同游龙在云雾中若隐若现,与郭熙《早春图》的龙脉山势如出一辙,颇有古意。主峰形态酷似元代王蒙笔下的《青卞隐居图》,即董其昌称之为 “天下第一” 的湖州卞山。赵孟頫有诗云:“何当便理南归棹,呼洒登楼看卞山”。湖岸小径一老者策杖前行,小童携琴紧随其后。前方奇山峻岭下有房屋隐没在松林间。整幅画面幽寂,空灵虚旷,耐人寻味。

这幅山水画中描绘的 “携琴访友” 有很强的元代文人画特征,深得古意。五代巨然、北宋徽宗、范宽、元代赵孟頫、朱德润等均有相关主题的画作传世。文人雅士 “高山流水遇知音” 的典故在此呼之欲出。

郭熙《早春图》| Early Spring, by GUO Xi (1020 – 1090)

美国专家约翰•赛里斯(Prof. John Sallis)在他的著作《感悟山水》中对郭熙的《早春图》有这样的评述:

「动态的力量由山的呈现方式显示出来。 底座上的两块巨石,特别是上面的巨石,形成了山的一部分,看起来好像是在扭曲,转向,变形; 也就是说,它们的外观是虚拟的运动,含有内在动力。 ……山的整体造型是延伸的S型; 山不仅呈现出龙的形状(象征着皇帝),而且,由于这个造型注入了动态的力量,山体看上去几乎是在旋转之中。」


赵孟頫,号松雪道人,元代文人画的创始人物,竭力倡导复古,提出 “作画贵有古意”,强调绘画的写意性和书法用笔,以画寄意。“不假丹青笔,何以写远愁”。为绘画注入浓郁的文人气质和韵味。

赵孟頫《洞庭东山图》,北京故宫博物院藏 | ZHAO Meng-Fu, Lake Taihu and Eastern Mountains, Palace Museum


春山瑞松圖 宋·米芾 台北故宮博物院藏 | MI Fu, Northern Song Dynasty, Spring Mountains & Pine Trees




元 倪瓒 松亭山色图 | NI Zan, Yuan Dynasty, Pine Pavilion with Mountain View

倪瓒,字元镇,元四家之一,擅长采用一水两岸式来描绘太湖景色。画面疏林坡岸,笔简意远,惜墨如金,开元代逸笔先路。 王世贞在《艺苑卮言》里说:“元镇极简雅,似嫩而苍。宋人易摹,元人难摹;元人犹可学,独元镇不可学也。” 倪瓒《答张藻仲书》云:“仆之所谓画者,不过逸笔草草,不求形似,聊以自娱耳。” 倪瓒的画画面简洁,中景大片留白,意为湖水,整个画面恬静疏旷,意境荒寒空寂。空白即画也,重虚留白是元代文人画的一大明显的时代特征。

王蒙,湖州人,元四家中最年轻者,赵孟頫的外孙,自小从师于赵孟頫。 王蒙的代表作《青卞隐居图》画的是家乡浙江湖州的卞山。董其昌曾泊舟山下,叹曰王蒙 “能为此山传神写照”, 并称之为“天下第一”。王蒙笔下的卞山层峦叠章碧山青,山峰巍峨陡峭,峰峦耸秀,气势磅礴。“之” 字形山体构图凸显山势动感,深得董源、郭熙笔意。

王蒙 青卞隐居图 | WANG Meng, Green Bian Mountain Hideaway

四、青箬笠,绿蓑衣,斜风细雨不须归 – 谈渔父的人生智慧

此青花碗外壁一周绘有两幅对应的渔父图,描绘江南山重水复的迤逦风光和渔父垂钓情景。此图取景类似于吴镇《渔父图》中描绘的江南水乡泽国。两株青松栉风沐雨,屹立山巅,一株古松斜逸而出,几间房屋掩映在苍松之间。远处群山远岫,相拥而卧,绵延起伏,几座峰峦秀起云雾中,若隐若现。中间大片留白,有一俩洲渚,表现的是烟波浩淼,一望无际,意境旷远。 山脚下一叶小舟闲泊湖泽,一渔夫头戴草笠,一手扶桨,一手执竿,专注垂钓。

元青花山水瓷碗 | Yuan Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain Ware


渔父的起源可以追溯到战国时期的《楚辞》和《庄子》。楚辞《渔父》中的屈原坚持 “举世皆浊我独清,众人皆醉我独醒。” 而渔父则认为 “圣人不凝滞于物,而能与世推移。世人皆浊,何不淈其泥而扬其波?众人皆醉,何不餔其糟而歠其酾?” 渔父高歌:“沧浪之水清兮,可以濯吾缨;沧浪之水浊兮,可以濯吾足。”

唐代诗人张志和,号玄真子,《新唐书·隐逸传·张志和》载张志和:“居江湖,自称烟波钓徒。” 张志和在湖州西塞山渔隐期间写下了著名的《渔歌子》(《渔父词》):




这里的 “任公子” 来自《庄子》。渔父和渔隐已演化成为道家思想的化身。

赵孟頫《江村渔乐图》,美国克利夫兰艺术博物馆藏 | ZHAO Meng-Fu, Happy Fishermen of the River Village, Cleveland Museum of Art



管道昇 (赵孟頫夫人) 亦曾作《渔父词》:



宫天挺,字大用,元代著名杂剧作家。宫天挺作《严子陵垂钓七里滩》,又称《严子陵钓鱼台》剧,文字雄劲遒丽,《太和正音谱》称其作品 “锋颖犀利,神采烨然,若健翮摩空,下视林薮,使狐兔缩颈于蓬棘之势”。该剧讲述的是汉代严子陵鄙弃功名,隐居富阳,垂钓于富春山畔七里滩的历史故事。严子陵曾在危难中解救过汉光武,光武为帝后召严子陵为官,严子陵却仍选择在七里滩垂钓生活,乐得悠闲自得。剧中有这样几句唱词:“〔调笑令〕巴到日暮春,天隅见隐隐残霞三百缕。钓的这锦鳞来,满向篮中贮。正是收纶钓渔父,那的是江上晚来堪画处,抖擞绿蓑烟去。”









五、元朱文,圆朱文 – 高雅的元代篆刻印

此件元青花山水大碗碗底落款为青花单框篆字款 “青” 字。这件青花瓷书写的青字,有元代始创的青花釉下彩钴料苏麻离青青翠浓艳的含义,同时也一语双关的点明了碗内外绘制的两幅青花山水画的青字主题 – 青松、青山、青波等。





赵孟頫与夫人管道昇同以江南高僧中峰明本和尚禅师为师,明本禅师曾在湖州卞山结庵。赵孟頫与明本的手札颇多,亲笔行书写过明本的禅诗 “青山诗” 和 “白云诗”。

赵孟頫行书《青山吟》| ZHAO Meng-Fu, Calligraphy, Green Mountain Poem



“青山诗” 里的青山应指的是王蒙所绘的《青卞隐居图》中的湖州卞山。


这次第,怎一个 “青” 字了得?明本禅师诙谐幽默的 “青山诗” 流露出的禅境如此令人陶醉,有道是:“心外无法,满目青山。”

赵孟頫《人骑图》| ZHAO Meng-Fu, Gentleman on Horseback

赵孟頫在其大作《人骑图》中书题 “画固难,识画尤难。世有识者,许渠具眼。” 五百年后,乾隆题跋,连称:“神骏图难识,识矣。”